BASIC SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

A free modular textbook for Junior Secondary or Middle Schools

I would like to encourage all users to contact me with their comments, suggestions or questions about the BS&T website and materials.

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News 2016/4

Going to school in the Pacific Contact Author

Observing and measuring Technology in action! Looking at living things Looking for living things in the sea Water supply reservoir Different kinds of batteries Studying electricity Female dog suckling puppies Observing and drawing flowers Girl welding with oxygen Dry ice cools ice creamAir corrodes iron Heat cooks food and boils water How do mirrors work? Sound and music How does water reach tree tops? Pouring molten iron Model of a sugar molecule A party toy can measure pressure! Hydraulic jack lifting car The Earth in space Volcano in Alaska Pregnant woman Atom of lithium Titanium aeroengine Waterfall Coal-fired power station Coral reef Good nutrition Victim of polio Electric train Industrial city Air bus Top of page

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About the book

News 2016/4

Contact Author

Instructions for downloading

All essential materials for Basic Science & Technology have been written in Microsoft Word 2003. In order to download successfully, you will need Word 2003 or a later version on your computer. Recent versions of word may not display individual modules correctly; if this occurs click on 'Enable editing' to restore the page to its correct format. Alternatively you can download a free viewer from Microsoft using this link to Word Viewer.

For convenience, complete chapters are now available in both .zip and .pdf files. The zip files contain all the modules for the chapter as separate Word documents (.doc files). You will need WinZip or similar software to unzip the chapter. The .pdf files contain all the modules for the chapter as a single document. You will need AdobeReader to open these files. The advantage of the .pdf format is that it is much more stable and less liable to corruption when opened on different platforms. Unlike .doc files, however, .pdf files cannot normally be edited by the user.

Downloading modules, chapters or other documents is very simple. Look at the List of downloadables below, and click on the link to the chapter (or other materials) you require. Then simply click on the module or other material that you want, and it will be opened on your computer - you can save it or print it using the File/Save As or File/Print commands. Alternatively, you can right-click on the materials you want, and then save or print them (without opening) by selecting the Save Target As or Print Target commands.

Unless otherwise stated, each module needs a single A4 page. If printing in black-and-white, it is best to set your printer to 'grayscale' for pages that contain photographs.

Materials downloaded from this site are absolutely free for students, and for teachers for use with their own classes. However they remain the copyright of the author © David Slimming 2013 and may not be sold for profit. Feedback from users would be appreciated and a form is available through the 'Contact Author' link on this page.

List of downloadables

Cover, Title page, Contents and Preface Go to Front End Papers
Chapter 1 - Introducing Science and Technology Go to Chapter 1
Chapter 2 - Living Things Go to Chapter 2
Chapter 3 - Water Go to Chapter 3
Chapter 4 - Electricity and Magnetism Go to Chapter 4
Chapter 5 - Reproduction and Life Cycles Go to Chapter 5
Chapter 6 - Air Go to Chapter 6
Chapter 7 - Heat, Light and Sound Go to Chapter 7
Chapter 8 - Blood and sap Go to Chapter 8
Chapter 9 - Atoms, elements and compounds Go to Chapter 9
Chapter 10 - Forces and Simple Machines Go to Chapter 10
Chapter 11 - Earth Science Go to Chapter 11
Chapter 12 - The human body Go to Chapter 12
Chapter 13 - Atoms and chemistry Go to Chapter 13
Chapter 14 - Energy Go to Chapter 14
Chapter 15 - Ecology Go to Chapter 15
Chapter 16 - Nutrition, health and disease Go to Chapter 16
Chapter 17 - Force, energy and power in action Go to Chapter 17
Chapter 18 - Science, technology and ourselves Go to Chapter 18
Appendices, Glossary, Index and Acknowledgements Go to Appendices and End Papers
Front End Papers
Cover (coloured) for Students
Title page for Students
Title page for Teachers' Guide
Table of contents (6 pages)
Preface for students
Preface for Teachers' Guide
Chapter 1 - Introducing Science and Technology
1.1 Introducing science and technology
1.2 What is science?
1.3 Science processes - Observing
1.4 Science processes - Measuring length and area
1.5 Science processes - Measuring volume and time
1.6 Science processes - Measuring mass and temperature
1.7 Science processes - Summing up and explaining why
1.8 Science processes - Doing experiments
1.9 Science and scientists
1.10 Technology in action
1.11 Science, technology and change
Chapter 1 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 1 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 1
Syllabus for Chapter 1
Chapter 2 - Living Things
2.1 The characteristics of living things
2.2 Introducing plants
2.3 Introducing animals
2.4 Classification and keys
2.5 Classifying plants (2 pages)
2.6 Classifying animals - Invertebrates (2 pages)
2.7 Classifying animals - Vertebrates (2 pages)
2.8 Food chains
2.9 Adaptation
Chapter 2 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 2 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 2
Syllabus for Chapter 2
Chapter 3 - Water
3.1 Water, water everywhere
3.2 The three states of water
3.3 The water cycle
3.4 Cooling by evaporation
3.5 Solutions and crystals (2 pages)
3.6 Suspensions and filtration
3.7 Evaporation and distillation
3.8 Floating, sinking and density
3.9 Water pressure
3.10 Flowing water
3.11 Water in living things
3.12 The technology of water supply
3.13 Water in the home
Chapter 3 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 3 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 3
Syllabus for Chapter 3
Chapter 4 - Electricity and Magnetism
4.1 Introducing electricity and magnets
4.2 The electric circuit
4.3 Conductors and insulators
4.4 Making good connections
4.5 Light bulbs
4.6 Cells and batteries
4.7 Switches and circuit diagrams
4.8 Torches
4.9 Magnets and magnetic materials
4.10 Magnetic poles
4.11 The magnetic compass
4.12 Magnetic fields
Chapter 4 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 4 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 4
Syllabus for Chapter 4
Chapter 5 - Reproduction and Life Cycles
5.1 Reproduction and life cycles
5.2 How to use a microscope
5.3 Living cells
5.4 Cells, reproduction and growth
5.5 Sexual reproduction
5.6 The life cycle of an amphibian - the frog
5.7 The life cycles of three insects - mosquito, house fly, butterfly
5.8 The life cycle of a bird - the domestic fowl
5.9 The life cycle of a mammal - the dog
5.10 The structure of a simple flower
5.11 Pollination and fertilisation
5.12 Fruits and seeds
5.13 Seeds and germination
5.14 Vegetative reproduction
Chapter 5 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 5 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 5
Syllabus for Chapter 5
Chapter 6 - Air
6.1 Introducing air
6.2 Air pressure
6.3 The composition of air
6.4 Oxygen
6.5 Carbon dioxide
6.6 Using oxygen and carbon dioxide
6.7 Nitrogen and the inert gases
6.8 Combustion
6.9 Extinguishing fires
6.10 Corrosion and rusting
6.11 Respiration
6.12 Photosynthesis
6.13 The oxygen and carbon cycles (2 pages)
Chapter 6 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 6 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 6
Syllabus for Chapter 6
Chapter 7 - Heat, Light and Sound
7.1 Introducing heat, light and sound
7.2 Heat - Conduction and insulation
7.3 Heat - Convection
7.4 Heat - Radiation
7.5 Heat - Expansion and changes of state
7.6 Heat - Thermometers and thermostats
7.7 Light - Light and shadows
7.8 Light - Reflection and mirrors
7.9 Light - Refraction
7.10 Light - Dispersion and colour
7.11 Light - Lenses (2 pages)
7.12 Light - The human eye
7.13 Sound - Sound and vibration
7.14 Sound - The speed of sound
7.15 Sound - The human ear
7.16 Sound - Pitch and volume
7.17 Sound - Music and noise
Chapter 7 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 7 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 7
Syllabus for Chapter 7
Chapter 8 - Blood and sap
8.1 Transport systems in living things
8.2 The human circulatory system
8.3 The human heart
8.4 Blood and the blood vessels
8.5 Blood transfusions and blood donors
8.6 Respiration, nutrition and transport in plants
8.7 Stems and veins
8.8 Root pressure and transpiration
8.9 The nitrogen cycle
Chapter 8 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 8 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 8
Syllabus for Chapter 8
Chapter 9 - Atoms, elements and compounds
9.1 Matter and materials
9.2 The kinetic theory
9.3 Using the kinetic model to explain things
9.4 Elements, symbols and formulae
9.5 Metal and non-metal elements
9.6 Compounds and their formulae
9.7 Organic and inorganic compounds
9.8 Chemical changes
9.9 Pure substances and mixtures
Chapter 9 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 9 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 9
Syllabus for Chapter 9
Chapter 10 - Forces and Simple Machines
10.1 Forces and machines
10.2 Measuring forces
10.3 The force of friction (2 pages)
10.4 Gravity, weight and mass
10.5 Centre of gravity
10.6 Pressure
10.7 Measuring pressure
10.8 Pressure and pumps
10.9 Machines 1 - Levers
10.10 Machines 2 - Pulleys
10.11 Machines 3 - The inclined plane
10.12 Machines 4 - Hydraulic machines
Chapter 10 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 10 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 10
Syllabus for Chapter 10
Chapter 11 - Earth Science
11.1 What is earth science?
11.2 Stars and galaxies
11.3 The solar system (2 pages)
11.4 Our planet Earth
11.5 Earth's climates and the seasons
11.6 The moon
11.7 Eclipses
11.8 Gravity and tides
11.9 Space exploration and technology
11.10 The origin and structure of the Earth
11.11 The Earth's tectonic plates (2 pages)
11.12 Earthquakes and volcanos
11.13 Mountain building, weathering and erosion
11.14 Rocks and minerals
Chapter 11 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 11 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 11
Syllabus for Chapter 11
Chapter 12 - The human body
12.1 The systems of the human body (2 pages)
12.2 The respiratory system
12.3 The digestive system
12.4 The liver, the lymphatic system and the spleen
12.5 The excretory system
12.6 The skeletal-muscular system (2 pages)
12.7 The sensory-nervous system
12.8 The endocrine system
12.9 The skin
12.10 The human life cycle
12.11 The male reproductive system
12.12 The female reproductive system
12.13 Conception, pregnancy and birth
12.14 The development of infants
12.15 Population issues
Chapter 12 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 12 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 12
Syllabus for Chapter 12
Chapter 13 - Atoms and chemistry
13.1 Atomic structure: protons, neutrons and electrons
13.2 The nucleus 1 - Atomic number, atomic mass and isotopes
13.3 The nucleus 2 - Radioactivity (2 pages)
13.4 The nucleus 3 - Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
13.5 The role of electrons: ionic and covalent compounds
13.6 The names, formulae and composition of simple compounds
13.7 Chemical equations
13.8 Indicators and the pH scale
13.9 Acids and bases
13.10 Neutralisation and salt formation
13.11 Carbon - the element of life
13.12 Fossil fuels 1 - Coal
13.13 Fossil fuels 2 - Oil and natural gas
13.14 Plastics
13.15 Metals from the Earth's crust (2 pages)
13.16 Ceramics, glass and concrete
13.17 Some more elements
Chapter 13 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 13 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 13
Syllabus for Chapter 13
Chapter 14 - Energy
14.1 What is energy?
14.2 Different kinds of energy (2 pages)
14.3 Changing one kind of energy into another (2 pages)
14.4 Thermodynamics
14.5 Heat exchangers and heat pumps
14.6 The internal combustion engine 1 Basics
14.7 The internal combustion engine 2 More details
14.8 The electric motor
14.9 The power station
14.10 Energy sources
Chapter 14 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 14 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 14
Syllabus for Chapter 14
Chapter 15 - Ecologyy
15.1 What is ecology?
15.2 Ecosystem, community, population and habitat
15.3 Taxonomy - the classification and naming of organisms
15.4 Adaptation in plants
15.5 Adapation in animals
15.6 Close relationships - species and symbiotes
15.7 Producers, consumers and decomposers
15.8 Food webs (2 pages)
15.9 Three major ecosystems and pyramids of numbers
15.10 Energy in ecosystems and pyramids of biomass
15.11 The recycling of elements
Chapter 15 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 15 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 15
Syllabus for Chapter 15
Chapter 16 - Nutrition, health and disease
16.1 Introducing nutrition, health and disease
16.2 Carbohydrates - energy foods
16.3 Lipids and proteins - energy and growth
16.4 Vitamins, minerals, water and fibre
16.5 A balanced diet and malnutrition
16.6 The special food needs of mothers and children
16.7 Overeating
16.8 Infective agents 1 - bacteria and viruses
16.9 Infective agents 2 - fungi, protozoa and larger parasites
16.10 The transmission of infections
16.11 Our defences against infection
16.12 The prevention of disease 1 - hygiene
16.13 The prevention of disease 2 - vaccination
16.14 Treating and curing diseases
16.15 Common viral diseases
16.16 Common bacterial diseases
16.17 Malaria
16.18 STDs and AIDS
Chapter 16 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 16 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 16
Syllabus for Chapter 16
Chapter 17 - Force, energy and power in action
17.1 Mass, force, energy and power
17.2 Turning forces and the principle of moments
17.3 Combining and resolving forces
17.4 Inertia and Newton's 1st law of motion
17.5 Acceleration and Newton's 2nd law of motion
17.6 Action, reaction and Newton's 3rd law of motion
17.7 Measuring mechanical energy and power
17.8 Measuring heat energy
17.9 Static electricity
17.10 Current electricity and circuits
17.11 Measuring current and voltage
17.12 Electrical resistance and Ohm's law
17.13 Series and parallel circuits
17.14 Electromagnetism
17.15 Mains electricity (2 pages)
17.16 Using and measuring electrical power
Chapter 17 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 17 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 17
Syllabus for Chapter 17
Chapter 18 - Science, technology and ourselves
18.1 Spaceship Earth
18.2 The early history of life on Earth (2 pages)
18.3 The rise and spread of humans
18.4 The biosphere and ecology
18.5 Carrying capacity
18.6 Pollution
18.7 Greenhouse gases and global warming
18.8 Conservation and sustainability
18.9 Science, technology and agriculture (2 pages)
18.10 Science, technology and health
18.11 Science, technology and minerals
18.12 Science, technology and energy (2 pages)
18.13 Science, technology and human wellbeing
Chapter 18 (all modules in a zip file)
Chapter 18 (all modules in a pdf file)
Teachers' Guide for Chapter 18
Syllabus for Chapter 18
Appendices and End Papers
Appendix A: Units and their prefixes
Appendix B: Some important elements and their symbols
Glossary (41 pages)
Index (17 pages)
Acknowledgements for illustrations (3 pages)
Summary Equipment Lists (9 pages)
Equipment Lists by Modules (11 pages)

© David Slimming 2013
All rights reserved